A V T E C H E L E C T R O S Y S T E M S L T D . N A N O S E C O N D W A V E F O R M E L E C T R O N I C S S I N C E 1 9 7 5 info@avtechpulse.com Tel: 888-670-8729 (USA & Canada) or +1-613-686-6675 (Intl) BOX 5120, LCD MERIVALE http://www.avtechpulse.com/ Fax: 800-561-1970 (USA & Canada) or +1-613-686-6679 (Intl) OTTAWA, CANADA K2C3H5 INSTRUCTIONS MODEL AVMR-2D-B 20 VOLT, 10 MHz HIGH PERFORMANCE PULSE GENERATOR WITH IEEE 488.2 AND RS-232 CONTROL SERIAL NUMBER: 13950 __________________________________________________________________ 2 WARRANTY Avtech Electrosystems Ltd. warrants products of its manuf acture to be free from defects in material and workmanship under conditions of normal use . If, within one year after delivery to the original owner, and after prepaid return by the original owner, this Avtech product is found to be defective, Avtec h shall at its option repair or replace said defective item. This warranty does no t apply to units which have been dissembled, modified or subjected to conditions exceeding the applicable specifications or ratings. This warranty is th e extent of the obligation assumed by Avtech with respect to this product and n o other warranty or guarantee is either expressed or implied. TECHNICAL SUPPORT Phone: 888-670-8729 (USA & Canada) or +1-613-686-6675 (Intl) Fax: 800-561-1970 (USA & Canada) or +1-613-686-6679 (Intl) E-mail: info@avtechpulse.com World Wide Web: http://www.avtechpulse.com __________________________________________________________________ 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS WARRANTY............................................................... ..................................................... 2 TECHNICAL SUPPORT...................................................... ............................................ 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................................... ............................................ 3 INTRODUCTION........................................................... .................................................. 5 SPECIFICATIONS......................................................... .................................................. 6 REGULATORY NOTES....................................................... ........................................... 7 FCC PART 18............................................................ .............................................................. 7 EC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY........................................... .......................................7 DIRECTIVE 2011/65/EU (RoHS)............................................ .................................................8 DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC (WEEE)............................................ ................................................8 FIRMWARE LICENSING..................................................... .................................................... 9 INSTALLATION........................................................... .................................................. 10 VISUAL CHECK........................................................... ......................................................... 10 POWER RATINGS.......................................................... ...................................................... 10 CONNECTION TO THE POWER SUPPLY......................................... ..................................10 PROTECTION FROM ELECTRIC SHOCK......................................... ..................................11 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS............................................... .........................................12 LABVIEW DRIVERS........................................................ ...................................................... 12 FUSES.................................................................. ......................................................... 13 AC FUSE REPLACEMENT.................................................... ............................................... 13 DC FUSE REPLACEMENT.................................................... ............................................... 14 FUSE RATINGS........................................................... ......................................................... 14 FRONT PANEL CONTROLS................................................... ..................................... 15 REAR PANEL CONTROLS.................................................... ...................................... 17 GENERAL INFORMATION.................................................... ....................................... 19 BASIC PULSE CONTROL.................................................... ................................................ 19 TRIGGER MODES.......................................................... ...................................................... 20 GATING MODES........................................................... ........................................................ 21 OPERATION AT LOW AMPLITUDES............................................ ......................................21 OPTIONAL FEATURES...................................................... .......................................... 22 RACK MOUNTING, "-R5" OPTION............................................ ..........................................22 DC OFFSET, "-OS" OPTION................................................ ................................................ 22 DC OFFSET, "-OT" OPTION................................................ ................................................ 22 __________________________________________________________________ 4 MONITOR OUTPUT, "-M" OPTION............................................ ..........................................22 PROTECTING YOUR INSTRUMENT............................................. ...............................23 TURN OFF INSTRUMENT WHEN NOT IN USE.................................... ...............................23 DO NOT EXCEED 10 MHz................................................... ................................................. 23 USE A 50 OHM LOAD...................................................... .................................................... 23 OPERATIONAL CHECK...................................................... ......................................... 24 PROGRAMMING YOUR PULSE GENERATOR....................................... ....................27 KEY PROGRAMMING COMMANDS............................................... .....................................27 ALL PROGRAMMING COMMANDS............................................... ......................................28 MECHANICAL INFORMATION................................................. ....................................30 TOP COVER REMOVAL...................................................... ................................................. 30 RACK MOUNTING.......................................................... ...................................................... 30 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE........................................... ...................................30 MAINTENANCE............................................................ ................................................ 31 REGULAR MAINTENANCE.................................................... .............................................. 31 CLEANING............................................................... ............................................................. 31 WIRING DIAGRAMS........................................................ ............................................. 32 WIRING OF AC POWER..................................................... .................................................. 32 WIRING OF DC POWER..................................................... .................................................. 33 PCB 158R4 - LOW VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY................................... .............................34 PCB 235C - HIGH VOLTAGE DC POWER SUPPLY................................ ............................35 PCB 216E - PRF/PW TWEAKING PCB......................................... .......................................36 PCB 231A - INTERNAL DC OFFSET FUNCTION................................. ...............................37 PCB 151D - RANGE / POLARITY RELAY BOARD................................ ..............................38 PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 1/3................................. ....................................39 PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 2/3................................. ....................................40 PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 3/3................................. ....................................41 MAIN WIRING - DUAL-POLARITY (-PN) UNITS................................ ..................................42 MAIN WIRING - NEGATIVE (-N) UNITS...................................... .........................................43 PERFORMANCE CHECKSHEET................................................. ................................ 44 Manual Reference: /fileserver1/officefiles/instructword/avmr/AVMR-2D-B, ed6.odt. Last modified February 29, 2024. Copyright © 2024 Avtech Electrosystems Ltd, All Rights Reserved. __________________________________________________________________ 5 INTRODUCTION The AVMR-2D-B is a high performance, GPIB and RS232-equipped instrument capable of generating up to 20V into 50Ω loads at repetition rates up to 10 MHz . The output pulse width is variable from 0.3 to 200 ns. The rise time (20%-80%) is 200 ps or less. The fall time is 300 ps or less. Instruments with the "-P" model suffix can generate up to +20V, whereas instruments with the "-N" model suffix can generate up to -20V. Instruments with th e "-PN" suffix can generate both polarities. Two pulse width ranges are used internally, with range switching occurr ing at 6 ns, approximately. The instrument automatically selects the appropriate ran ge, but there may be a pause in triggering as the internally relays switch. Similarly , two amplitude ranges are used, with range switching occurring at 3.4V, approximately. An internal relay-switched 15 dB attenuator is used to provide the lower amplitudes . The AVMR-2D-B is a highly flexible instrument. Aside from the internal trigger source, it can also be triggered or gated by external TTL-level signals. A front-p anel pushbutton or a computer command can also be used to trigger the instrument. The AVMR-2D-B features front panel keyboard and adjust knob control of the output pulse parameters along with a four line by 40-character backlit LCD dis play of the output amplitude, pulse width, pulse repetition frequency, and delay. T he instrument includes memory to store up to four complete instrument setups. The ope rator may use the front panel or the computer interface to store a complete “snapshot ” of all key instrument settings, and recall this setup at a later time. This instrument is intended for use in research, development, test and calibration laboratories by qualified personnel. __________________________________________________________________ 6 SPECIFICATIONS Model1: AVMR-2D-B Amplitude2,7: (50 load) < 4 to 20 Volts Pulse width (FWHM): 0.5 to 200 ns PRF: 0 to 10 MHz Duty cycle: 10% maximum Rise time (20%-80%): ≤ 200 ps Fall time (80%-20%): ≤ 300 ps Polarity3: Positive or negative or both (specify) Required load impedance: 50 Ohms6 Propagation delay: < 150 ns. Ext trig in to pulse out. Jitter: ± 35 ps ± 0.015% of sync delay. DC offset or bias insertion: Optional4. Apply required externally-generated DC offset to back panel solder terminals (± 50 Volts, 250 mA max) Trigger modes: Internal trigger, external trigger (TTL level pulse, > 10 ns, 1 kΩ inpu t impedance), front-panel “Single Pulse” pushbutton, or single pulse trigger via comp uter command. Variable delay: Sync to main out: 0 to 1.0 seconds, for all trigger modes (including ex ternal trigger). Sync output: > +3 Volts, > 40 ns, will drive 50 Ohm loads Monitor output option5: Provides a 20 dB attenuated coincident replica of main output. GPIB and RS-232 control1: Standard on -B units LabView drivers: Available for download at http://www.avtechpulse.com/labview. Ethernet port, for remote Included. Recommended as a modern alternative to GPIB / RS-232. control using VXI-11.3, ssh, telnet, & web: See http://www.avtechpulse.com/options/vxi for details. Settings resolution: The resolution of the timing parameters (pulse width, delay, period) va ries, but is always better than 0.15% of (|set value| + 20 ns). The amplitude resolution is < 0.1% of the maximum amplitude. Settings accuracy: Amplitude: Typically ± (3% of setting) ± (2% of maximum). Delay, Period: Typically ± (3% of setting ) ± (5 ns) Pulse width: Typically ± (3% of setting ) ± (2 ns), at maximum amplitud e. As the amplitude is reduced, the pulse width may shift ± 5 ns. For high-accura cy applications requiring traceable calibration, verify the output with a calibrated os cilloscope8. Connectors: Out, Monitor: SMA. Trig, Sync, Gate: BNC Optional accessory kit: Add the suffix "-AK1" to the model number to include the recommended ac cessory kit. Consists of three (attenuators and SMA, 18 GHz, 2 Watt attenuators (10, 20 & 30 dB) for use on the output, and two 50 Ohm, 1 GHz, 1 Watt terminators) feed-through terminators (one SMA, one BNC) for use on external trigger inputs. Optional accessory kit: Add the suffix "-AK8" to the model number to include the recommended ac cessory kit. Consists of one 12- (coaxial cables and inch SMA-M/SMA-M PE-SR405FL coaxial cable, one 12-inch SMA-M/SMA-MRG-31 6 coaxial cable, one adapters) 36-inch SMA-M/SMA-M RG-316 coaxial cable, one 24-inch SMA-M/BNC-M RG-31 6 coaxial cable, one 36- inch BNC-M/BNC-M RG58C/U coaxial cable, one SMA-F to BNC-M adapter, one SMA-M to BNC-F adapter, one SMA-F to SMA-F adapter, and one SMA-F to solder cup adapte r Power, Temperature: 100 - 240 V, 50 - 60 Hz. +5°C to +40°C. Dimensions (H x W x D): 100 x 430 x 375 mm (3.9” x 17” x 14.8”) 1) -B suffix indicates IEEE-488.2 GPIB and RS-232 control of amplitude, pulse width, PRF and delay (See http://www.avtechpulse.com/gpib). 2) For operation at amplitudes of less than 20% of full-scale, best res ults will be obtained by setting the amplitude near full-scale and usi ng external attenuators on the output. 3) Indicate desired polarity by suffixing model number with -P or -N (i .e. positive or negative) or -PN for the dual polarity option 4) The -OS option adds an internal bias tee circuit to the output, allo wing an externally-generated DC offset (±50V/250mA max) to be added the output signal. The -OT option includes the -OS function, and adds the ability to generate a ±5V/100mA offset internally (controlled from the front pa nel, or by computer command on -B units). 5) For monitor option add suffix -M. 6) A 50 Ohm load is required. Other loads may damage the instrument. Co nsult Avtech (info@avtechpulse.com) if you need to drive other load impedances. 7) The maximum output amplitude may decline by up to 25% when operating at PRFs higher than 20% of the maximum specified PRF, or the duty cycl e exceeds 5%, or the pulse width is less than 2 × (the specified rise tim e + the specified fall time). 8) These instruments are provided with a basic calibration checksheet, showing a selection of measured output parameters. These measurements a re performed with equipment that is calibrated on a regular basis by a thi rd-party ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accredited calibration laboratory. However, Avtech itself does not claim any accreditation. For applications requir ing traceable performance, use a calibrated measurement system rather t han relying on the accuracy of the pulse generator settings. __________________________________________________________________ 7 REGULATORY NOTES FCC PART 18 This device complies with part 18 of the FCC rules for non-consumer ind ustrial, scientific and medical (ISM) equipment. This instrument is enclosed in a rugged metal chassis and uses a filter ed power entry module (where applicable). The main output signal is provided on a shie lded connector that is intended to be used with shielded coaxial cabling and a shielde d load. Under these conditions, the interference potential of this instrument is low. If interference is observed, check that appropriate well-shielded cabli ng is used on the output connectors. Contact Avtech (info@avtechpulse.com) for advice if you are unsure of the most appropriate cabling. Also, check that your load is adequate ly shielded. It may be necessary to enclose the load in a metal enclosure. If any of the connectors on the instrument are unused, they should be c overed with shielded metal “dust caps” to reduce the interference potential. This instrument does not normally require regular maintenance to minimi ze interference potential. However, if loose hardware or connectors are noted, they sho uld be tightened. Contact Avtech (info@avtechpulse.com) if you require assista nce. EC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY We Avtech Electrosystems Ltd. P.O. Box 5120, LCD Merivale Ottawa, Ontario Canada K2C 3H5 declare that this pulse generator meets the intent of Directive 2004/10 8/EG for Electromagnetic Compatibility. Compliance pertains to the following spe cifications as listed in the official Journal of the European Communities: EN 50081-1 Emission EN 50082-1 Immunity __________________________________________________________________ 8 and that this pulse generator meets the intent of the Low Voltage Direc tive 2006/95/EC. Compliance pertains to the following specifications as listed in the of ficial Journal of the European Communities: EN 61010-1:2001 Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory use DIRECTIVE 2011/65/EU (RoHS) We Avtech Electrosystems Ltd. P.O. Box 5120, LCD Merivale Ottawa, Ontario Canada K2C 3H5 declare that, to the best of our knowledge, all electrical and electron ic equipment (EEE) sold by the company are in compliance with Directive 2011/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2011 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (also known as “RoHS Recast”). In addition, this declaration of conformity is issued under t he sole responsibility of Avtech Electrosystems Ltd. Specifically, products man ufactured do not contain the substances listed in the table below in concentrations grea ter than the listed maximum value. Material/Substance Threshold level Lead (Pb) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) Mercury (Hg) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) Polybrominated Diphenyl ethers (PBDE) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) Cadmium (Cd) < 100 ppm (0.01% by mass) Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) < 1000 ppm (0.1% by mass) DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC (WEEE) European customers who have purchased this equipment directly from Avte ch will have completed a “WEEE Responsibility Agreement” form, accepting responsibil ity for WEEE compliance (as mandated in Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Union a nd local __________________________________________________________________ 9 laws) on behalf of the customer, as provided for under Article 9 of Dir ective 2002/96/EC. Customers who have purchased Avtech equipment through local representat ives should consult with the representative to determine who has responsibil ity for WEEE compliance. Normally, such responsibilities with lie with the represent ative, unless other arrangements (under Article 9) have been made. Requirements for WEEE compliance may include registration of products w ith local governments, reporting of recycling activities to local governments, an d financing of recycling activities. FIRMWARE LICENSING Instruments with firmware versions 5.00 or higher use open-source softw are internally. Some of this software requires that the source code be made available t o the user as a condition of its licensing. This source code is available upon request (contact info@avtechpulse.com). Earlier firmware versions do not contain any open source software. __________________________________________________________________ 10 INSTALLATION VISUAL CHECK After unpacking the instrument, examine to ensure that it has not been damaged in shipment. Visually inspect all connectors, knobs, liquid crystal displa ys (LCDs), and the handles. Confirm that a power cord, a GPIB cable, and two instrumentati on manuals (this manual and the “Programming Manual for -B Instruments”) are with the instrument. If the instrument has been damaged, file a claim immediately with the c ompany that transported the instrument. POWER RATINGS This instrument is intended to operate from 100 - 240 V, 50 - 60 Hz. The maximum power consumption is 90 Watts. Please see the “FUSES” secti on for information about the appropriate AC and DC fuses. This instrument is an “Installation Category II” instrument, intended f or operation from a normal single-phase supply. CONNECTION TO THE POWER SUPPLY An IEC-320 three-pronged recessed male socket is provided on the back p anel for AC power connection to the instrument. One end of the de tachable power cord that is supplied with the instrument plugs into this socket. The other end of t he detachable power cord plugs into the local mains supply. Use only the cable supplied with the instrument. The mains supply must be earthed, and the cord used to connect the instrument to the mains supply must provide an earth connection. (The s upplied cord does this.) Warning: Failure to use a grounded outlet may result in injury or deat h due to electric shock. This product uses a power cord with a ground connection . It must be connected to a properly grounded outlet. The instrument chassis is conn ected to the ground wire in the power cord. The table below describes the power cord that is normally supplied with this instrument, depending on the destination region: __________________________________________________________________ 11 Destination Region Description Option Manufacturer Part Number United Kingdom, Hong Kong, BS 1363, -AC00 Qualtek 370001-E01 Singapore, Malaysia 230V, 50 Hz AS 3112:2000, Australia, New Zealand -AC01 Qualtek 374003-A01 230-240V, 50 Hz Continental Europe, Korea, European CEE 7/7 -AC02 Qualtek 364002-D01 Indonesia, Russia “Schuko” 230V, 50 Hz NEMA 5-15, North America, Taiwan -AC03 Qualtek 312007-01 120V, 60 Hz SEV 1011, Switzerland -AC06 Qualtek 378001-E01 230V, 50 Hz SABS 164-1, South Africa, India -AC17 Volex 2131H 10 C3 220-250V, 50 Hz JIS 8303, Japan -AC18 Qualtek 397002-01 100V, 50-60 Hz SI 32, Israel -AC19 Qualtek 398001-01 220V, 50 Hz GB 1002-1 / 2099-1, China -AC22 Qualtek 399012-01 220V, 50 Hz PROTECTION FROM ELECTRIC SHOCK Operators of this instrument must be protected from electric shock at all times. The owner must ensure that operators are prevented access and/or are insula ted from every connection point. In some cases, connections must be exposed to p otential human contact. Operators must be trained to protect themselves from the risk of electric shock. This instrument is intended for use by qualified personnel who r ecognize shock hazards and are familiar with safety precautions required to avoid poss ibly injury. In particular, operators should: 1. Keep exposed high-voltage wiring to an absolute minimum. 2. Wherever possible, use shielded connectors and cabling. 3. Connect and disconnect loads and cables only when the instrument is turned off. 4. Keep in mind that all cables, connectors, oscilloscope probes, and l oads must have an appropriate voltage rating. 5. Do not attempt any repairs on the instrument, beyond the fuse replac ement procedures described in this manual. Contact Avtech technical support ( see page 2 for contact information) if the instrument requires servicing. S ervice is to be performed solely by qualified service personnel. __________________________________________________________________ 12 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS This instrument is intended for use under the following conditions: 1. indoor use; 2. altitude up to 2 000 m; 3. temperature 5 °C to 40 °C; 4. maximum relative humidity 80 % for temperatures up to 31 °C decreasi ng linearly to 50 % relative humidity at 40 °C; 5. Mains supply voltage fluctuations up to ±10 % of the nominal voltage ; 6. no pollution or only dry, non-conductive pollution. LABVIEW DRIVERS A LabVIEW driver for this instrument is available for download on the A vtech web site, at http://www.avtechpulse.com/labview. A copy is also available in Nati onal Instruments' Instrument Driver Library at http://www.natinst.com/. __________________________________________________________________ 13 FUSES This instrument contains four fuses. All are accessible from the rear-p anel. Two protect the AC prime power input, and two protect the interna l DC power supplies. The locations of the fuses on the rear panel are shown in the figure below: Fuses #1 and #2 Fuse #4 Fuse #3 (AC fuses) (DC fuse) (DC fuse) AC FUSE REPLACEMENT To physically access the AC fuses, the power cord must be detached from the rear panel of the instrument. The fuse drawer may then be extracted using a small flat-head screwdriver, as shown below: Pry out the fuse drawer using a screwdriver. Fuse Drawer __________________________________________________________________ 14 DC FUSE REPLACEMENT The DC fuses may be replaced by inserting the tip of a flat-head screwd river into the fuse holder slot, and rotating the slot counter-clockwise. The fuse and its carrier will then pop out. FUSE RATINGS The following table lists the required fuses: Nominal Recommended Replacement Part Fuses Mains Rating Case Size Littelfuse Part Digi-Key Stock Voltage Number Number 0.8A, 250V, 115 V 5×20 mm 0218.800HXP F2418-ND Time-Delay #1, #2 (AC) 0.5A, 250V, 230 V 5×20 mm 0218.500HXP F2416-ND Time-Delay 2.0A, 250V, #3 (DC) N/A 5×20 mm 0218002.HXP F2420-ND Time-Delay 0.5A, 250V, #4 (DC) N/A 5×20 mm 0218.500HXP F2416-ND Time-Delay The recommended fuse manufacturer is Littelfuse (http://www.littelfuse. com). Replacement fuses may be easily obtained from Digi-Key (http://www.digi key.com) and other distributors. __________________________________________________________________ 15 FRONT PANEL CONTROLS 1 3 2 6 5 4 1. P OWER Switch . This is the main power switch. When turning the instrum ent on, there is normally a delay of 10 seconds before anything is shown on the main display, as the internal operating system boots up. If the main menu does not appear after 30 seconds, turn off the instrum ent and leave it off for at least 60 seconds before applying power again. 2. O VERLOAD Indicator . When the instrument is powered, this indicator is normally green, indicating normal operation. If this indicator is yellow, an int ernal automatic overload protection circuit has been tripped. If the unit is overloaded (by operating at an exceedingly high duty cycle or by operating into a very low imped ance), the protective circuit will disable the output of the instrument and turn t he indicator light yellow. The light will stay yellow (i.e. output disabled) for about 5 s econds after which the instrument will attempt to re-enable the output (i.e. light g reen) for about 1 second. If the overload condition persists, the output will be disabl ed again (i.e. light yellow) for another 5 seconds. If the overload condition has been removed, the instrument will resume normal operation. This overload indicator may flash yellow briefly at start-up. This is n ot a cause for concern. Note that the output stage will safely withstand a short-circuited load condition. 3. O UT CONNECTOR . This SMA connector provides the main output signal, in to load impedances of 50 Ohms. 4. S YNC OUT . This connector supplies a SYNC output that can be used to t rigger other equipment, particularly oscilloscopes. This signal leads (or lags ) the main output by a duration set by the "DELAY" controls and has an approximate amplitude of +3 Volts to RL > 50Ω with a pulse width of approximately 1 00 ns. 5. L IQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) . This LCD is used in conjunction with th e keypad to change the instrument settings. Normally, the main menu is di splayed, __________________________________________________________________ 16 which lists the key adjustable parameters and their current values. The “Programming Manual for -B Instruments” describes the menus and submenu s in detail. 6. K EYPAD . Control Name Function MOVE This moves the arrow pointer on the display. CHANGE This is used to enter the submenu, or to select the operating mode, pointed to by the arrow pointer. ×10 If one of the adjustable numeric parameters is displayed, this increases the setting by a factor of ten. ÷10 If one of the adjustable numeric parameters is displayed, this decreases the setting by a factor of ten. +/- If one of the adjustable numeric parameters is displayed, and this parameter can be both positive or negative, this changes the sign of the parameter. EXTRA FINE This changes the step size of the ADJUST knob. In the extra- fine mode, the step size is twenty times finer than in the normal mode. This button switches between the two step sizes. ADJUST This large knob adjusts the value of any displayed numeric adjustable values, such as frequency, pulse width, etc. The adjust step size is set by the "EXTRA FINE" button. When the main menu is displayed, this knob can be used to move the arrow pointer. __________________________________________________________________ 17 REAR PANEL CONTROLS 4 5 9 10 1 3 OS GND GATE MON TRIG RS-232 GPIB 8 6 7 2 Note: some connectors may be in different positions than shown above, d epending on the exact combination of options ordered. 1. A C POWER INPUT . An IEC-320 C14 three-pronged recessed male socket is provided on the back panel for AC power connection to the instrument. O ne end of the detachable power cord that is supplied with the instrument plugs in to this socket. 2. A C FUSE DRAWER . The two fuses that protect the AC input are located i n this drawer. Please see the “FUSES” section of this manual for more informat ion. 3. D C FUSES . These two fuses protect the internal DC power supplies. Ple ase see the “FUSES” sections of this manual for more information. 4. G ATE . This TTL-level (0 and +5V) logic input can be used to gate the triggering of the instrument. This input can be either active high or active low, dep ending on the front panel settings or programming commands. (The instrument triggers normally when this input is unconnected). When set to active high mode, this inp ut is pulled- down to ground by a 1 kΩ resistor. When set to active low mode, this in put is pulled- up to +5V by a 1 kΩ resistor. 5. T RIG . This TTL-level (0 and +5V) logic input can be used to trigger t he instrument, if the instrument is set to triggering externally. The instrument triggers on the rising edge of this input. The input impedance of this input is 1 kΩ. (Dependi ng on the length of cable attached to this input, and the source driving it, it m ay be desirable to add a coaxial 50 Ohm terminator to this input to provide a proper trans mission line termination. The Pasternack (www.pasternack.com) PE6008-50 BNC feed-thr u 50 Ohm terminator is suggested for this purpose.) __________________________________________________________________ 18 6. G PIB Connector . A standard GPIB cable can be attached to this connect or to allow the instrument to be computer-controlled. See the “Programming Manual f or -B Instruments” for more details on GPIB control. 7. R S-232 Connector. A standard serial cable with a 25-pin male connecto r can be attached to this connector to allow the instrument to be computer-contr olled. A user name (“admin”) and a password (“default”, as shipped from the factory) are required when logging into a serial terminal session. The internal controller at tempts to auto- sense the parity setting. It may be necessary to send a few return char acters before attempting a login in order to provide enough data to allow this auto-s ensing to work. (A standard Linux “agetty” process is used to implement serial control internally.) See the “Programming Manual for -B Instruments” for more details on RS-232 control. 8. N etwork Connector . This Ethernet connector allows the instrument to b e remotely controlled using the VXI-11.3, ssh (secure shell), telnet, and http (we b) protocols. See the “Programming Manual for -B Instruments” for more details. 9. M Connectors . (Optional feature. Present on "-M" units only.) The mon itor output provides an attenuated replica (20 dB down) of the voltage on the main output (but excluding the effect of the internal range attenuator and DC offset fun ctions). 10. O S Connector . (Optional feature. Present on units with the -OS and -O T options only). This connector allows an externally generated DC offset to be added to the output. The desired DC offset is applied to this connector, which is connected to the output centre conductor through a high-quality RF inductor. Do not exceed ±50 V, 250 mA. For units with the -OS option, this input is always active. For units w ith the -OT option, the DC offset is generated internally by default, unless the “volt:low ext” command is sent, or the external mode is selected from the front panel offset menu – in which case, the externally-generated DC bias is applied to this input. __________________________________________________________________ 19 GENERAL INFORMATION BASIC PULSE CONTROL This instrument can be triggered by its own internal clock or by an ext ernal TTL trigger signal. In either case, two output channels respond to the trigger: OUT and SYNC.  OUT. This is the main output.  SYNC. The SYNC pulse is a fixed-width TTL-level reference pulse used to trigger oscilloscopes or other measurement systems. When the delay is s et to a positive value the SYNC pulse precedes the OUT pulse. When the delay is set to a negative value the SYNC pulse follows the OUT pulse. These pulses are illustrated below, assuming internal triggering and a positive delay: 100 ns, FIXED SYNC OUT (generated by the 3V, FIXED internal oscillator) DELAY > 0 PULSE WIDTH AMPLITUDE, VARIABLE MAIN OUTPUT Figure A If the delay is negative, the order of the SYNC and OUT pulses is rever sed: 100 ns, FIXED SYNC OUT (generated by the 3V, FIXED internal oscillator) DELAY < 0 PULSE WIDTH AMPLITUDE, VARIABLE MAIN OUTPUT Figure B __________________________________________________________________ 20 The next figure illustrates the relationship between the signal when an external TTL- level trigger is used: > 50 ns TRIG TTL LEVELS (external input) (0V and 3V-5V) PROPAGATION DELAY (FIXED) 100 ns, FIXED SYNC OUT 3V, FIXED DELAY > 0 PULSE WIDTH AMPLITUDE, VARIABLE MAIN OUTPUT Figure C As before, if the delay is negative, the order of the SYNC and OUT puls es is reversed. In general, the delay, pulse width, and frequency (when in the internal mode), of the OUT pulse can be varied with front panel controls or via the GPIB or RS -232 computer interfaces. TRIGGER MODES This instrument has four trigger modes:  Internal Trigger: the instrument controls the trigger frequency, and ge nerates the clock internally.  External Trigger: the instrument is triggered by an external TTL-level clock on the back-panel TRIG connector.  Manual Trigger: the instrument is triggered by the front-panel “SINGLE PULSE” pushbutton.  Hold Trigger: the instrument is set to not trigger at all. These modes can be selected using the front panel trigger menu, or by u sing the appropriate programming commands. (See the “Programming Manual for -B Instruments” for more details.) __________________________________________________________________ 21 GATING MODES Triggering can be suppressed by a TTL-level signal on the rear-panel GA TE connector. The instrument can be set to stop triggering when this input high or lo w, using the front- panel gate menu or the appropriate programming commands. When gated, th e output will complete the full pulse width if the output is high, and then stop triggering. Pulses are not truncated. OPERATION AT LOW AMPLITUDES This instrument will generate the best waveforms when operated near max imum amplitude. If amplitudes less than ~ 4% of the full-scale value are des ired, better results will be obtained if the pulse generator is operated at a higher amplitu de, and an attenuator is connected to the output. Avtech recommends the BW-SxxW2+ series of 18 GHz coaxial attenuators fr om Mini- Circuits, http://www.minicircuits.com/. (The “xx” in the part number is replaced with the numeric attenuation value in dB). __________________________________________________________________ 22 OPTIONAL FEATURES RACK MOUNTING, "-R5" OPTION A rack mounting kit is available. The "-R5" rack mount kit may be insta lled after first removing the one Phillips screw on the side panel adjacent to the front handle. DC OFFSET, "-OS" OPTION This option adds a bias tee circuit on the output, with a rear-panel “O S” connector. This connector allows an externally generated DC offset to be added to the o utput. The desired DC offset is applied to this connector, which is connected to the outpu t centre conductor through a high-quality RF inductor. Do not exceed ±50V, 250 mA. DC OFFSET, "-OT" OPTION This option adds a bias tee circuit on the output, and adds an internal 0 to ±5V DC bias source. The offset level can be set by the front-panel controls, or by computer commands. The internal DC source is active by default, unless the “volt :low ext” command is sent, or the external mode is selected from the front panel offset menu. In that case, the user must add the desired externally-generated DC offset to the rear-panel solder terminals (± 50 Volts / 250 mA maximum). MONITOR OUTPUT, "-M" OPTION The monitor output provides an attenuated replica (÷ 10) of the voltage on the main output. The monitor output is designed to operate into a 50 Ohm load. T he monitor output does not include the effect of the internal 15 dB attenuator that is us ed to provide main output amplitudes of 3.4V or less. __________________________________________________________________ 23 PROTECTING YOUR INSTRUMENT TURN OFF INSTRUMENT WHEN NOT IN USE The lifetime of the switching elements in the pulse generator module is proportional to the running time of the instrument. For this reason the prime power to the instrument should be turned off when the instrument is not in use. In the case of failure, the switching elements are easily replaced following the procedure describe d in a following section. DO NOT EXCEED 10 MHz The output stage may be damaged if triggered by an external signal at a pulse repetition frequency greater than 10 MHz. USE A 50 OHM LOAD The output stage may be damaged if the output is not terminated into a 50Ω load. __________________________________________________________________ 24 OPERATIONAL CHECK This section describes a sequence to confirm the basic operation of the instrument. It should be performed after receiving the instrument. It is a useful lear ning exercise as well. Before proceeding with this procedure, finish reading this instruction manual thoroughly. Then read the “Local Control” section of the “Programming M anual for -B Instruments” thoroughly. The “Local Control” section describes the fron t panel controls used in this operational check - in particular, the MOVE, CHANGE, and A DJUST controls. AVTECH SAMPLING PULSER OSCILLOSCOPE BW > 10 GHz MAIN OUTPUT 50 OHM INPUT CONNECTOR 40 dB AC ATTENUATOR POWER TRIG TRIG CONNECTOR CONNECTOR ALL CABLES: 50 OHM COAXIAL BASIC TEST ARRANGEMENT 1. Connect the pulse generator to a sampling oscilloscope as shown abo ve. Note that: a) The use of 40 dB attenuator at the sampling scope vertical input ch annel will insure a peak input signal to the sampling scope of less than 1 Volt. F actory tests are conducted using Mini-Circuits model BW-S20W2+ attenuators. b) The TRIG output channel provides TTL level signals (approximately 0 and +3V). To avoid overdriving the TRIG input channel of some scopes, a 20 dB attenuator may be required at the input to the scope trigger channel. c) The bandwidth capability of components and instruments used to disp lay the pulse generator output signal (attenuators, cables, connectors, etc.) s hould exceed 10 GHz. d) Set the oscilloscope to trigger externally with the vertical settin g at 100 mV/div and the horizontal setting at 10 ns/div. __________________________________________________________________ 25 2. Turn on the AVMR-2D-B. The main menu will appear on the LCD. 3. To set the AVMR-2D-B to trigger from the internal clock at a PRF of 10 kHz: a) The arrow pointer should be pointing at the frequency menu item. If it is not, press the MOVE button until it is. b) Press the CHANGE button. The frequency submenu will appear. Rotate the ADJUST knob until the frequency is set at 10 kHz. c) The arrow pointer should be pointing at the “Internal” choice. If i t is not, press MOVE until it is. d) Press CHANGE to return to the main menu. 4. To set the delay to 100 ns: a) Press the MOVE button until the arrow pointer is pointing at the de lay menu item. b) Press the CHANGE button. The delay submenu will appear. Rotate the ADJUST knob until the delay is set at 100 ns. c) The arrow pointer should be pointing at the “Normal” choice. If it is not, press MOVE until it is. d) Press CHANGE to return to the main menu. 5. To set the pulse width to 60 ns: a) Press the MOVE button until the arrow pointer is pointing at the pu lse width menu item. b) Press the CHANGE button. The pulse width submenu will appear. Rotat e the ADJUST knob until the pulse width is set at 60 ns. c) The arrow pointer should be pointing at the “Normal” choice. If it is not, press MOVE until it is. d) Press CHANGE to return to the main menu. 6. At this point, nothing should appear on the oscilloscope. 7. To enable the output: a) Press the MOVE button until the arrow pointer is pointing at the ou tput menu item. __________________________________________________________________ 26 b) Press the CHANGE button. The output submenu will appear. c) Press MOVE until the arrow pointer is pointing at the “ON” choice. d) Press CHANGE to return to the main menu. 8. To change the output amplitude: a) Press the MOVE button until the arrow pointer is pointing at the am plitude menu item. b) Press the CHANGE button. The amplitude submenu will appear. Rotate the ADJUST knob until the amplitude is set at +10V (or -10V for "-N" models ). c) Observe the oscilloscope. You should see 60 ns wide, 10V pulses. If you do not, you may need to adjust the delay setting to a value more compatibl e with your sampling oscilloscope. Repeat step 4 if required. You may also nee d to adjust the sampling scope controls. d) Rotate the ADJUST knob. The amplitude as seen on the oscilloscope s hould vary. Return it to 10V. e) ("-PN" units only) Press the +/- button on the front panel. The amp litude as seen on the oscilloscope should flip polarity, to -10V. f) Press CHANGE to return to the main menu. 9. To set the pulse width to 2 ns: a) Press the MOVE button until the arrow pointer is pointing at the pu lse width menu item. b) Press the CHANGE button. The pulse width submenu will appear. Rotat e the ADJUST knob until the pulse width is set at 2 ns. c) Observe the oscilloscope. You should see 2 ns wide, 10V pulses. If you do not, you may need to adjust the delay setting to a value more compatible wit h your sampling oscilloscope. Repeat step 4 if required. You may also need to adjust the sampling scope controls. d) Press CHANGE to return to the main menu. This completes the operational check. __________________________________________________________________ 27 PROGRAMMING YOUR PULSE GENERATOR KEY PROGRAMMING COMMANDS The “Programming Manual for -B Instruments” describes in detail how to connect the pulse generator to your computer, and the programming commands themselv es. A large number of commands are available; however, normally you will only need a few of these. Here is a basic sample sequence of commands that might be sent t o the instrument after power-up: *rst (resets the instrument) trigger:source internal (selects internal triggering) frequency 1000 Hz (sets the frequency to 1000 Hz) pulse:width 50 ns (sets the pulse width to 50 ns) pulse:delay 20 ns (sets the delay to 20 ns) volt:ampl 5 (sets the amplitude to +5 V) ("-N" units should use "volt:ampl -5) volt:low -2 (sets the DC offset, for units with the -OT option) output on (turns on the output) For triggering a single event, this sequence would be more appropriate: *rst (resets the instrument) trigger:source hold (turns off all triggering) pulse:width 50 ns (sets the pulse width to 50 ns) output on (turns on the output) volt:ampl 5 (sets the amplitude to +5 V) ("-N" units should use "volt:ampl -5) volt:low -2 (sets the DC offset, for units with the -OT option) trigger:source immediate (generates a single non-repetitive trigger event) trigger:source hold (turns off all triggering) output off (turns off the output) To set the instrument to trigger from an external TTL signal applied to the rear-panel TRIg connector, use: *rst (resets the instrument) trigger:source external (selects internal triggering) pulse:width 50 ns (sets the pulse width to 50 ns) pulse:delay 1 us (sets the delay to 1 us) volt:ampl 5 (sets the amplitude to +5 V) ("-N" units should use "volt:ampl -5) volt:low -2 (sets the DC offset, for units with the -OT option) output on (turns on the output) __________________________________________________________________ 28 These commands will satisfy 90% of your programming needs. ALL PROGRAMMING COMMANDS For more advanced programmers, a complete list of the available command s is given below. These commands are described in detail in the “Programming Manua l for -B Instruments”. (Note: this manual also includes some commands that are n ot implemented in this instrument. They can be ignored.) Keyword Parameter Notes OUTPut: :[STATe] :PROTection :TRIPped? [query only] [SOURce]: :FREQuency [:CW | FIXed] [SOURce]: :PULSe :PERiod :WIDTh :DCYCle :HOLD WIDTh | DCYCle :DELay :GATE :TYPE ASYNC | SYNC :LEVel HIgh | LOw [SOURce]: :VOLTage [:LEVel] [:IMMediate] [:AMPLitude] | EXTernal :LOW | EXTernal [for -OT option only] :PROTection :TRIPped? [query only] STATUS: :OPERation :[EVENt]? [query only, always returns "0"] :CONDition? [query only, always returns "0"] :ENABle [implemented but not useful] :QUEStionable :[EVENt]? [query only, always returns "0"] :CONDition? [query only, always returns "0"] :ENABle [implemented but not useful] SYSTem: :COMMunicate :GPIB :ADDRess :SERial :CONTrol :RTS ON | IBFull | RFR :[RECeive] :BAUD 1200 | 2400 | 4800 | 9600 | 19200 | 38400 | 57600 | 115200 :ERRor __________________________________________________________________ 29 :[NEXT]? [query only] :COUNT? [query only] :VERSion? [query only] TRIGger: :SOURce INTernal | EXTernal | MANual | HOLD | IMMediate *CLS [no query form] *ESE *ESR? [query only] *IDN? [query only] *OPC *SAV 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 [no query form] *RCL 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 [no query form] *RST [no query form] *SRE *STB? [query only] *TST? [query only] *WAI [no query form] __________________________________________________________________ 30 MECHANICAL INFORMATION TOP COVER REMOVAL If necessary, the interior of the instrument may be accessed by removin g the four Phillips screws on the top panel. With the four screws removed, the top cover may be slid back (and off). Always disconnect the power cord and allow the instrument to sit unpow ered for 10 minutes before opening the instrument. This will allow any internal sto red charge to discharge. There are no user-adjustable internal circuits. For repairs other than fuse replacement, please contact Avtech (info@avtechpulse.com) to arrange for the instrum ent to be returned to the factory for repair. Service is to be performed solely b y qualified service personnel. Caution: High voltages are present inside the instrument during normal operation. Do not operate the instrument with the cover removed. RACK MOUNTING A rack mounting kit is available. The -R5 rack mount kit may be install ed after first removing the one Phillips screw on the side panel adjacent to the front handle. ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE To prevent electromagnetic interference with other equipment, all used outputs should be connected to shielded loads using shielded coaxial cables. Unused ou tputs should be terminated with shielded coaxial terminators or with shielded coaxia l dust caps, to prevent unintentional electromagnetic radiation. All cords and cables s hould be less than 3m in length. __________________________________________________________________ 31 MAINTENANCE REGULAR MAINTENANCE This instrument does not require any regular maintenance. On occasion, one or more of the four rear-panel fuses may require repla cement. All fuses can be accessed from the rear panel. See the “FUSES” section for details. CLEANING If desired, the interior of the instrument may be cleaned using compres sed air to dislodge any accumulated dust. (See the “TOP COVER REMOVAL” section for instructions on accessing the interior.) No other cleaning is recommend ed. __________________________________________________________________ WIRING DIAGRAMS WIRING OF AC POWER 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mains circuits - hazardous live. A3 - BLACK X1 Do not attempt any repairs on this instrument PS1 POWER SWITCH SW325-ND (CW INDUSTRIES GRS-4022-0013) beyond the fuse replacement procedures described NORMALLY: ECP180PS24 1b 2b in the manual. Contact Av tech if the instrument 156E, 156F, -HC UNITS, -IPGE: ECP180PS36 requires serv icing. Serv ice is to be performed A4 - WHITE Molex 19002-0009. 0.187" x 0.032" 1 2 D WARNING solely by qualified service personnel. D 1a 2a BD2 CENTER IN STD SPACE PCB104D KEYPAD BOARD (-B UNITS ONLY) USE 1/4" METAL STANDOFFS A1 - BROWN A2 - BLUE Y R B O Y L TO LCD TO ENCODER 1 G - 2 Safety earth ground / - N TO LCD 3 G2 - Primary earth ground / 4 + 5 Protective conductor terminal. A + TO PCB 108 6 K + G G3 G G 104D X2 N L CORCOM 6EGG1-2 POWER ENTRY MODULE G4 P B1 M X E V U T O A ONLY 125W+ UV UNITS STD - ALL UNITS G1 C C Molex 19002-0001. 0.250" x 0.032". GND Molex 19073-0013 ring terminal, #8. GND R N - + U R GND J10 D D D Install green/yellow wires at bottom of stack, closest to wall. IN IN IN N N N C C C G G G - P - G J8 3 4 +24V, NO OLO D D D Chassis ground post. C C +24V, NO OLO GND +24, NO OLO Secondary earth ground. J6 +5V NSY V V V V V D D V V POS OLO 0 5 5 5 N N 5 5 FAN NOT +5V REG 1 1 -5 + + + POS OLO K D S D D S D + + -1 G G N N P IN N N P N 20 AWG HARNESSED -5V OLO GND G A G T T X G E G X G -15V NEG OLO B N J2 I-E I-E P9768-ND +15V NSY J3 GND P A H H FAN1 +15V REG C 20 AWG 20 OR 24 AWG J4 +10V J1 + C N - D A 24 AWG 20 AWG F - J9 - FAN + B B A K J7 AMBER GND J5 GREEN PCB 158R4 BD1 PCB 158R4 T X5 K D H L E VCC LED MOUNT B R B W N M R A G A A Ti tle QC3 HARNESS, FOR PCB158R4, XP ECP B N Date Revisi on M R 29-May-2020 9A A G D1 P395-ND LED Z:\engineering\pcb\158\switching60hz.ddb - USAGE\obs\158R4 ECP - v9A.sc h 1 2 3 4 5 6 __________________________________________________________________ WIRING OF DC POWER 1 2 3 4 5 6 D D -30V GND C J12 + GND - GND - + GND J10 D D D IN IN IN N N N C C C G G G J8 GND +24V, NO OLO D D D C J8 +24V, NO OLO + GND +24, NO OLO J6 - +5V NSY V V V V V D D V V POS OLO 0 5 5 5 N N 5 5 +5V REG 1 1 -5 + + + POS OLO K D S D D S D + + -1 G G N N P IN N N P N 20 AWG -5V OLO GND G A G T T X G E G X G -15V NEG OLO B N J2 I-E I-E +15V NSY J3 GND P A H H C +15V REG C C 20 AWG 20 OR 24 AWG J4 M10 PS, WITH PCB 235B - +10V J1 J11 PS1 + 24 AWG 20 AWG HV+ 0 TO +36V, VAR HV+ SSR - J9 - FAN N/C + VC HV- OP1B AMP (TO APD) APD GND HV- GND A +LV K 235B J7 R7 = 5K 3266W R8 = 15 OY R6 = 4.7K R9 = 10K OY AMBER R10 = NOT USED CHS GND GND J5 R5 = NOT USED R11 = NOT USED GREEN R3 = NOT USED U1 = SP7122/Y PCB 158R4 X1 M10 PS, WITH PCB 235B PCB 158R4 PS2 B HV+ +39V, FIXED B HV+ SSR CHANGES ON PCB 158R4 N/C VC HV- APD GND 1) INSTALL U10 = PYB15-Q24-D15 HV- GND 2) INSTALL C29 = 47uF/50V +LV 235B 3) INSTALL C30 = 47uF/35V R7 = 5K HORZ POT R8 = 10 OY 4) INSTALL C31 = 2.2uF CER R6 = NOT USED R9 = 10K OY R10 = NOT USED CHS GND 5) INSTALL L6 = L8 = 100 uH (7447452101) R5 = ZERO OHMS R11 = NOT USED R3 = NOT USED U1 = SP7122/Y 6) INSTALL J12 = 640456-4 A A Ti tle AVMR-2D-B POWER SUPPLY Date Revisi on 29-May-2020 4A Z:\engineering\circuits\avmr\avmr.Ddb - AVMR-2D-B-PN\MR-2D PS V4.sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 __________________________________________________________________ PCB 158R4 - LOW VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY __________________________________________________________________ PCB 235C - HIGH VOLTAGE DC POWER SUPPLY __________________________________________________________________ PCB 216E - PRF/PW TWEAKING PCB __________________________________________________________________ PCB 231A - INTERNAL DC OFFSET FUNCTION __________________________________________________________________ PCB 151D - RANGE / POLARITY RELAY BOARD __________________________________________________________________ PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 1/3 1 2 3 4 5 6 D D Am p 5 4 9 9 9 1 0 -1 , 1 0 p i n s t rai g h t h ead er J 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C 8 C 9 1 0 LC D-BU TT LC D-BU TT. SCH SD A SC L GN D VC C VC C -LED B A C K LIGH T EN C O DER EN C O DER .S C H SD A I2 C_ INT B B SC L SING LE PUL SE GN D VC C B A C K LIGH T A A T i t le PANEL TOP-LEVEL SCHEMATIC Da te Re vis i on 25-Sep-2015 Z:\mjcfiles\pcb\104f\keypad-2015.ddb - Documents\Panelbrd.prj 1 2 3 4 5 6 __________________________________________________________________ PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 2/3 1 2 3 4 5 6 U4 A VC C C 1 0 VC C B U T1 2 1 VC C R 4 2 . 2 u F C 2 C 4 C 1 5 C 1 3 1 5 K U7 VC C M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N 0 . 1 u F 0 . 1 u F 0 . 1 u F 0 . 1 u F GN D 1 1 6 A0 VC C 2 1 5 U4 B A1 SD A 3 1 4 C 1 1 A2 SC L D Q1 B U T1 4 1 3 B U T2 4 3 D P0 INT R 1 M M B T2 2 2 2 A B U T2 5 1 2 P1 P7 B U T3 6 1 1 2 . 2 u F 1 5 K P2 P6 B U T4 7 1 0 B U T6 M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N P3 P5 8 9 B U T5 1 2 GN D P4 U4 C J 8 PC F8 5 7 4 AN (MU ST HA VE " A" IN P/N ) C 1 2 6 4 0 4 5 6 -2 B U T3 6 5 2 . 2 u F U6 M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N 4 1 2 C T EN M AX /M IN 5 1 3 U4 D D/ U R C O 1 4 C 9 C L K 1 1 3 C N T4 B U T4 8 9 LO AD QA 1 5 2 C N T5 A QB 1 6 C N T6 2 . 2 u F B QC 1 0 7 C N T7 M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N C QD 9 D U4 E SN 7 4 HC 1 9 1 D C 7 B U T5 1 0 1 1 U1 D X6 U8 2 . 2 u F C C 9 8 4 1 2 VC C M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N C T EN M AX /M IN 5 1 3 1 D/ U R C O R E D, +5 V 1 4 2 U4 F C L K M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N 1 1 3 C N T0 3 C 6 LO AD QA OR AN GE , B 1 5 2 C N T1 4 B U T6 1 2 1 3 A QB YE LLOW , A 1 6 C N T2 5 B QC GR EEN , GN D 1 0 7 C N T3 2 . 2 u F C QD 9 M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N D SO LDER PAD S SN 7 4 HC 1 9 1 D U1 E C 1 1 0 1 1 SING LE PUL SE X4 C 3 C 1 4 C 1 6 VC C 2 . 2 u F 1 M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N VC C VC C VC C R E D, +5 V 2 0 . 1 u F 0 . 1 u F 0 . 1 u F 3 R N 2 R N 1 R N 3 OR AN GE , B 4 8 1 4 6 0 8 X-1 -4 7 3 LF-N D YE LLOW , A 5 7 2 GR EEN , GN D 6 3 5 4 4 5 1 x 5 SEC TION O F B R E AK AW A Y HEA DE R, R EM OV E P IN 2 3 6 B VC C U3 VC C 2 7 B 1 1 6 1 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A0 VC C 2 1 5 A1 SD A VC C 3 1 4 4 6 0 8 X-2 -1 0 1 LF-N D 4 6 0 8 X-2 -1 0 1 LF-N D A2 SC L 4 1 3 P0 INT 5 1 2 J 7 P1 P7 6 1 1 AU X P2 P6 3 7 1 0 OV P3 P5 2 8 9 TEM P X5 GN D P4 1 8 2 -6 0 1 -8 1 , 6 b u tt o n k ey p ad PC F8 5 7 4 AN (MU ST HA VE " A" IN P/N ) 6 4 0 4 5 6 -3 M OV E C H AN GE 1 A 1 B 6 A 6 B U2 VC C 1 1 6 A0 VC C 2 1 5 X1 0 / 1 0 VC C A1 SD A SD A 3 1 4 2 A 2 B 5 A 5 B A2 SC L SC L C N T0 4 1 3 P0 INT I2 C_ INT C N T1 5 1 2 C N T7 X2 P1 P7 C N T2 6 1 1 C N T6 8 2 -1 0 1 -7 1 , 1 b u tt o n k ey p ad P2 P6 C N T3 7 1 0 C N T5 +/ - EX TR A F IN E P3 P5 8 9 C N T4 1 A 1 B 3 A 3 B 4 A 4 B GN D P4 A PC F8 5 7 4 AN (MU ST HA VE " A" IN P/N ) R 2 A 1 0 0 K T i t le ENCODER, BUTTONS, AND PLD VC C Da te Re vis i on 25-Sep-2015 Z:\mjcfiles\pcb\104f\keypad-2015.ddb - Documents\ENCODER.SCH 1 2 3 4 5 6 __________________________________________________________________ PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 3/3 1 2 3 4 5 6 VC C VC C C 5 C 8 0 . 1 u F 2 . 2 u F GN D D D VC C U5 VC C 1 1 6 A0 VC C 2 1 5 A1 SD A SD A 3 1 4 A2 SC L SC L 4 1 3 P0 INT 5 1 2 P1 P7 6 1 1 P2 P6 7 1 0 P3 P5 8 9 GN D P4 PA D3 PA D4 PC F8 5 7 4 AN (MU ST HA VE " A" IN P/N ) LED + LED - C C R E U1 A U1 C W R N 4 VC C O 1 1 6 P 1 2 5 6 D 2 C L 3 4 M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N 5 R 3 6 VC C 7 2 2 U1 B U1 F 8 VC C 9 3 4 1 3 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 2 M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N M M 7 4 HC 1 4 N 1 3 1 4 1 5 4 8 1 6 P-2 -1 0 2 LFC T-N D B B X1 0 2 1 DB 6 DB 7 4 -4 0 MO UN T 4 -4 0 MO UN T W TP1 4 3 C DB 4 DB 5 X3 X1 X9 X8 TES T-LO OP 6 5 C R 5 DB 2 DB 3 4 -4 0 MO UN T 4 -4 0 MO UN T T 8 7 O DB 0 DB 1 P 1 1 0 9 V R / W E1 2 W 1 2 1 1 IE VE E R S W 3 1 4 1 3 VC C VS S 1 6 1 5 NC E2 1 8 1 7 LED - LED + W PO T, 3 2 6 6 X 1 0 K H OR IZ C A3 2 7 0 7 -0 9 -ND VC C R 6 B L VC C 0 A A T i t le LCD CIRCUITS, MECHANICAL Da te Re vis i on 25-Sep-2015 Z:\mjcfiles\pcb\104f\keypad-2015.ddb - Documents\LCD-BUTT.SCH 1 2 3 4 5 6 __________________________________________________________________ MAIN WIRING - DUAL-POLARITY (-PN) UNITS 1 2 3 4 5 6 BD1 VPRF LAN OP1B MAIN BOARD, PCB 295E VSPARE CHANGES REQUIRED ON PCB 295E: -30V SYNC 1) CHANGE R11 TO 1K, FROM 10K (FOR 10 MHz) CONN1 -15V 2) CONFIRM C9 = 0 (NO PRF LIM CAP) SYNC 3) CHANGE C13 = 8.2pF (50 ns SYNC) OLIMEX +24V, NO OLO 28 4) CHANGE C35 = 68pF (SINGLE B RANGE) +15V ON/OFF 27 +5V ON/OFF 5) IF -OT, REMOVE R1, AND INSTALL R3=0 26 MAIN OUT 25 SYNC OUT M1 M2 24 D EXT TRIG D PGB-P PGB-N BD3 23 GATE PCB104E KEYPAD BOARD 22 CONN2 +24V -15V +24V N/C XRLY 1 21 GATE GND OS GND OS A XRLY 2 (DUAL PW) 20 APD GND GND N/C GND N/C K XRLY 3 (V-I) 19 CONN3 0 TO +36V, VAR HV VAR N/C HV VAR N/C XRLY 4 (EO) 18 EXT TRIG GND N/C GND -V XRLY 5 P 17 N/C N/C N/C N/C M X AMPLRNG 0 E V U 16 GND N/C GND N/C T O A AMPLRNG 1 15 N/C N/C AMPLRNG 2 CHS GND CHS GND 14 N/C N/C AMPLRNG 3 13 N/C N/C AMPLRNG 4 E IG 12 T CHANGES REQUIRED ON PCB 151D: O.SPEEDUP-RNG A R 11 N T N T G T IN IN O.EA O U O U 1) REMOVE R12 10 O O O.SINE M M 9 2) INSTALL R13 = 0 O.TRI 8 O.SQU (ONE-SHOT TOO SLOW FOR 10 MHz & NOT NEEDED, SO BYPASS) 7 O.LOGIC 6 O.ZOUT/PWRNG 5 O.POL 4 SPARE, 0-10V 3 PW, 0-10V . . 2 M .C K1 M -15V OFFSET, 0-10V .O 401-2208 (12V) .O .C K5 401-2208 (-M UNITS ONLY) 1 295E N O N N O N +5V AMPLITUDE, 0-10V C C +15V - + - + +24V, NO OLO OUT V X D P 4 D F U N M O C W O C 2 N V A G A N N C S N C N + G ) ) V V V V D -P -P , P V -N -N -P -P -N -N V V 4 5 5 5 , N N IN IN 5 A A 0 2 1 + L A A B B B B 5 -1 G A G + + A 1 G G O G G G G G G 1 -3 N IG IG R P (+ , P , P N , P , P , P , P , P , P (+ R R Y V V V V V V V V B Y T T L 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 L R 1 R -1 1 -1 2 +24V, NO OLO + -1 2 O + -1 + + R TRIG B P L F A O V -OT UNITS ONLY P 4 2 + BD4 TRIG A P C +15V -15V C 5 TRIG A N -15V 4 +15V 3 GND 2 TRIG B N OUT 1 IN PCB231A -OT TRIG IN 151D -15V +24V, NO OLO BD2 X1 PCB151D OS OP1B AMP (TO APD) M3 M4 IF NOT -OT PGA-P PGA-N +24V -15V +24V -15V GND OS GND OS CHANGES REQUIRED ON BOTH P AND N PCB 216Es: APD GND GND N/C GND N/C +39V, FIXED +HV N/C +HV N/C 1) INSTALL A, B, C POTS, 10K GND N/C GND N/C 2) INSTALL U4 = AD734 (MULTIPLIER) -HV SHNT -HV SHNT GND AMP GND AMP 3) INSTALL R12, R17 = 2.2K (BOOSTS GAIN) PW PW CHS GND CHS GND 4) INSTALL R16 = 15K (SUMMING) N/C N/C VF VF 5) ON -N PCB ONLY: INSTALL K1,K2,K3=AQV252G T T IN M U IN M U VPWin: 0 TO +10V, ALL PRF O O OS TWEAK OS TWEAK VPWOUT VPWOUT +24V, NO OLO B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B BT-0018 (ON BULKHEAD CONN) M5 V G 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 1 2 S T D D V G 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 1 2 S T D D 4 K K K X X Y Y O L IN IN IN N N 4 K K K X X Y Y O L 2 U 2 IN IN IN U N N G G G G + + M M OUT CONN5 A- A- B+ B+ C- C- V V V V D+ V V D+ V V .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 K2 1 1 1 1 T T T T T T + -1 + -1 T T + -1 + -1 U U U + U U U O O O O U U O O O O N.C IN IN K O IN O IN O IN O IN T T T T F K O IN O IN V O IN O IN T T T T F V N N F F R D V N N F F R D V A 1 1 V V 5 A . . 1 1 5 V V 5 5 5 5 O O U U , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 P N 1 216D 5 5 O O U U , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 P N 1 216D COM - M .C K3 M E E .O 5 5 N N IN IN B B D C B A V G -1 + 5 5 N N IN IN B B D C B A V G -1 + 401-2208 (12V) .O .C K6 401-2208 (-M UNITS ONLY) N O N N O N W W C C N.O. T T - + - + E 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 E 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 401-2208 (12V) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 P BD5 P +15V +15V O O PCB216D, -N L -15V L -15V K4 S S + N.C M6 BD6 BW-S15W2+ PCB216D, -P COM - N.O. 401-2208 (12V) CONN7 VPW, P AND N: ~ +2.7 TO +9.7V, LOW PRF USE SR405 FOR PURPLE COAX, RG316 FOR BLACK. MON (-M UNITS ONLY) KEEP SR405 AS SHORT AS POSSIBLE, . . 0 TO -1.5V, WITH PRF M .C K8 M TWEAK OS (A) AND SLOPE (B) ITERATIVELY AND AVOID TIGHT BENDS AND COILING. .O IF -M: 401-2208 (12V) .O .C K7 401-2208 (-M UNITS ONLY) N O N N O N POSITION RELAYS AS OS TO MINIMIZE LENGTHS. C IF NOT -M: 401-2308 (24V) C ~ +0.7 TO +7V, HIGH PRF A PRESERVES PG-A TF. - + - + A IF -M TWEAK "A" AT MIN PW AT 10 MHz. TWEAK "B" AT MAX PW AT 10 MHz. 0V THEN ITERATE. MIN PW MAX PW IF NOT -M AVMR-2D-B-PN Printed Revisi on 29-May-2020 4C Z:\engineering\circuits\avmr\avmr.Ddb - AVMR-2D-B-PN\MR-2D-B V4.sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 __________________________________________________________________ MAIN WIRING - NEGATIVE (-N) UNITS 1 2 3 4 5 6 CHANGES REQUIRED ON PCB 255D: 1) CHANGE R11 TO 1K, FROM 10K 2) CONFIRM C9 = 0 3) CHANGE C13 = 8.2pF 4) CHANGE C35 = 33pF -2 4 V VP RF VS PAR E +2 4 V, N O OLO M 2 D D PG B-N SY NC CO NN 1 N +2 4 V N/ C A GN D OS SY NC L AP D GN D GN D N/ C 2 8 CO NN 4 0 TO +3 6 V, V AR HV VA R N/ C +1 5 V ON /O FF 2 7 NE TW OR K GN D -2 4 V +5 V O N/ OF F TRD 855S IG-1 C AB LE 2 6 N/ C N/ C M AIN OU T 2 5 ON -V XI U NI TS ON LY GN D N/ C SY NC O UT 2 4 N/ C EX T T RIG CH S GND 2 3 N/ C GA TE 2 2 CO NN 2 N/ C XR LY 1 2 1 GA TE XR LY 2 (DU AL PW ) N T 2 0 IN XR LY 3 (V-I) O U 1 9 CO NN 3 O XR LY 4 (EO) M 1 8 EX T T RIG CHANGES REQUIRED ON PCB 151C: XR LY 5 1 7 AM PL RN G 0 1) CUT TRACK ON BOTTOM TO U1-11 1 6 AM PL RN G 1 1 5 2) JUMPER U1-9 TO U2-9 AM PL RN G 2 1 4 AM PL RN G 3 (ONE-SHOT TOO SLOW FOR 10 MHz & NOT NEEDED, SO BYPASS) 1 3 AM PL RN G 4 E IG 1 2 T O. SPE EDU P-RN G A R 11 G T O. EA 1 0 O. SINE 9 -1 5 V O. TR I 8 +5 V O. SQ U 7 +1 5 V O. LO GIC 6 +2 4 V, N O OLO O. ZO UT/ PW R NG 5 O. PO L 4 SPA RE , 0 -1 0 V P ) ) 3 V V V V D -P -P , V -N -N -P -P -N -N V V PW , 0 -1 0 V 4 5 5 5 , N N IN IN A A B B 0 5 5 2 A L A B B 2 1 + -1 G A G A 1 G G G G 1 OF FSET, 0 -1 0 V + + G G G G -3 O 1 N IG + P N AM PL ITU DE , 0 -1 0 V IG R ( , P , P , P , P , P , P , P , P (+ R R Y V V T V V V V V V B Y T L 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 L 1 2 R OU T -1 1 R + -1 -1 2 + -1 O R V + + L X D P TR IG B P F A 4 D O F U N M O C V W O C 2 N P V A G A N N C S N C N + G 4 BD 1 2 C + OP 1 B M AIN BO AR D, P CB 2 5 5 D C TR IG A P TR IG A N +2 4 V, N O OLO BD 3 PC B1 0 4 E K EY PAD B OA RD TR IG B N A K -1 5 V TR IG IN P +2 4 V, N O OLO M X E V U T O A BD 2 OP 1 B AM P (TO APD ) PC B1 5 1 C M 4 PG A-N +2 4 V -1 5 V GN D OS AP D GN D GN D N/ C +3 9 V, FIXE D +H V N/ C GN D N/ C -HV N/ C GN D AM P PW CH S GND N/ C VF T IN M U VPWin: 0 TO +10V, ALL PRF O OS TWEAK VPWOUT +2 4 V, N O OLO B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B CO NN 5 OU T CHANGES REQUIRED ON 216E: 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 1 2 S V G T D D K K K X X Y Y O L 4 IN IN IN 2 U N N 1) INSTALL A, B, C POTS, 10K G G + M M 5 S 2) INSTALL U4 = AD734 (MULTIPLIER) O A- -OS 3) INSTALL R12 = 2.2K (BOOSTS GAIN) IN O B+ 4) INSTALL R16 = 15K (SUMMING) C- 5) INSTALL K1, K3=AQV252G W I RE FO R UN I TS W ITH OUT -OT OR -EO X1 V V V V 6) INSTALL R17 = 4.7K (MORE GAIN FOR "A") D+ .5 .5 .5 .5 OS /-1 /-1 /-1 /-1 FO R -OT OR -E O UN I TS ONL Y K2 T T T T + + + + U + U U U O O O O N. C IN SW 1 OF F K O IN O IN O IN O IN T T T T F V N N F F R D V A 1 1 V V 5 5 5 5 O O U U , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 P N 1 2 1 6 E CO M E 5 5 N N IN IN B B D C B A V G -1 + ON - W N. O . T BD 4 E 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 0 1 -2 2 0 8 (1 2 V ) P BD 5 +1 5 V O PC B2 1 6 E, -N L -1 5 V 5 K4 S -1 5 V -1 5 V 4 +1 5 V +1 5 V + N. C 3 M 6 GN D 2 BW -S1 5 W 2 + OU T CO M 1 - IN N. O . PC B2 3 1 A -O T 4 0 1 -2 2 0 8 (1 2 V ) CO NN 7 ~ +2. 7 TO + 9.7 V, LO W PR F VP W : TW EA K OS (A ) AN D SL OPE (B ) ITE RA TIV ELY US E S R405 FOR PU RP LE C OA X, R G31 6 FOR BL AC K. M ON (-M UN IT S O NL Y) KE EP SR4 05 AS S HORT AS P OS SIBLE , . . 0 TO -1 .5V , W I TH PR F M .C K8 M .C K7 ~ +0. 7 TO + 7V, HI GH P RF I F -OT AN D A VOI D TI GH T B EN DS A ND C OILIN G. .O I F -M: 401-220 8 (12V ) .O O N O N 4 0 1 -2 2 0 8 (-M U NITS ON LY) N N C C POSI TI ON R ELA YS A S OS TO MIN IMI ZE LEN GTH S. I F N OT -M: 4 01-2308 (2 4V) A PR ES ER VE S PG -A TF . - + - + TW EA K "A" AT MI N PW A T 10 MHz . A TW EA K "B" AT MA X PW AT 10 MH z . 0V I NT I F -M THE N I TE RA TE. MI N P W MA X P W EX T A SIMPLIFIED VERSION OF -PN -EO U NI TS ON LY I F N OT -M AVMR-2D-B-N FO R -OT A ND -EO U NI TS ON LY Pri nte d Re vis i on 14-Nov-2016 1D Z:\mjcfiles\circuits\avmr\avmr.Ddb - AVMR-2D-B-N\MR-2D-N V1.sch 1 2 3 4 5 6 __________________________________________________________________ PERFORMANCE CHECKSHEET __________________________________________________________________ Document Outline * [1]WARRANTY * [2]TECHNICAL SUPPORT * [3]TABLE OF CONTENTS * [4]INTRODUCTION * [5]SPECIFICATIONS * [6]REGULATORY NOTES + [7]FCC PART 18 + [8]EC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY + [9]DIRECTIVE 2011/65/EU (RoHS) + [10]DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC (WEEE) + [11]FIRMWARE LICENSING * [12]INSTALLATION + [13]VISUAL CHECK + [14]POWER RATINGS + [15]CONNECTION TO THE POWER SUPPLY + [16]PROTECTION FROM ELECTRIC SHOCK + [17]ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS + [18]LABVIEW DRIVERS * [19]FUSES + [20]AC FUSE REPLACEMENT + [21]DC FUSE REPLACEMENT + [22]FUSE RATINGS * [23]FRONT PANEL CONTROLS * [24]REAR PANEL CONTROLS * [25]GENERAL INFORMATION + [26]BASIC PULSE CONTROL + [27]TRIGGER MODES + [28]GATING MODES + [29]OPERATION AT LOW AMPLITUDES * [30]OPTIONAL FEATURES + [31]RACK MOUNTING, "-R5" OPTION + [32]DC OFFSET, "-OS" OPTION + [33]DC OFFSET, "-OT" OPTION + [34]MONITOR OUTPUT, "-M" OPTION * [35]PROTECTING YOUR INSTRUMENT + [36]TURN OFF INSTRUMENT WHEN NOT IN USE + [37]DO NOT EXCEED 10 MHz + [38]USE A 50 OHM LOAD * [39]OPERATIONAL CHECK * [40]PROGRAMMING YOUR PULSE GENERATOR + [41]KEY PROGRAMMING COMMANDS + [42]ALL PROGRAMMING COMMANDS * [43]MECHANICAL INFORMATION + [44]TOP COVER REMOVAL + [45]RACK MOUNTING + [46]ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE * [47]MAINTENANCE + [48]REGULAR MAINTENANCE + [49]CLEANING * [50]WIRING DIAGRAMS + [51]WIRING OF AC POWER + [52]WIRING OF DC POWER + [53]PCB 158R4 - LOW VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY + [54]PCB 235C - HIGH VOLTAGE DC POWER SUPPLY + [55]PCB 216E - PRF/PW TWEAKING PCB + [56]PCB 231A - INTERNAL DC OFFSET FUNCTION + [57]PCB 151D - RANGE / POLARITY RELAY BOARD + [58]PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 1/3 + [59]PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 2/3 + [60]PCB 104F - KEYPAD / DISPLAY BOARD, 3/3 + [61]MAIN WIRING - DUAL-POLARITY (-PN) UNITS + [62]MAIN WIRING - NEGATIVE (-N) UNITS * [63]PERFORMANCE CHECKSHEET __________________________________________________________________ References 1. file:///root/tmp.html#2 2. file:///root/tmp.html#2 3. file:///root/tmp.html#3 4. file:///root/tmp.html#5 5. file:///root/tmp.html#6 6. file:///root/tmp.html#7 7. file:///root/tmp.html#7 8. file:///root/tmp.html#7 9. file:///root/tmp.html#8 10. file:///root/tmp.html#8 11. file:///root/tmp.html#9 12. file:///root/tmp.html#10 13. file:///root/tmp.html#10 14. file:///root/tmp.html#10 15. file:///root/tmp.html#10 16. file:///root/tmp.html#11 17. file:///root/tmp.html#12 18. file:///root/tmp.html#12 19. file:///root/tmp.html#13 20. file:///root/tmp.html#13 21. file:///root/tmp.html#14 22. file:///root/tmp.html#14 23. file:///root/tmp.html#15 24. file:///root/tmp.html#17 25. file:///root/tmp.html#19 26. file:///root/tmp.html#19 27. file:///root/tmp.html#20 28. file:///root/tmp.html#21 29. file:///root/tmp.html#21 30. file:///root/tmp.html#22 31. file:///root/tmp.html#22 32. file:///root/tmp.html#22 33. file:///root/tmp.html#22 34. file:///root/tmp.html#22 35. file:///root/tmp.html#23 36. file:///root/tmp.html#23 37. file:///root/tmp.html#23 38. file:///root/tmp.html#23 39. file:///root/tmp.html#24 40. file:///root/tmp.html#27 41. file:///root/tmp.html#27 42. file:///root/tmp.html#28 43. file:///root/tmp.html#30 44. file:///root/tmp.html#30 45. file:///root/tmp.html#30 46. file:///root/tmp.html#30 47. file:///root/tmp.html#31 48. file:///root/tmp.html#31 49. file:///root/tmp.html#31 50. file:///root/tmp.html#32 51. file:///root/tmp.html#32 52. file:///root/tmp.html#33 53. file:///root/tmp.html#34 54. file:///root/tmp.html#35 55. file:///root/tmp.html#36 56. file:///root/tmp.html#37 57. file:///root/tmp.html#38 58. file:///root/tmp.html#39 59. file:///root/tmp.html#40 60. file:///root/tmp.html#41 61. file:///root/tmp.html#42 62. file:///root/tmp.html#43 63. file:///root/tmp.html#44